When subjects were examined with a PET scan while playing a second-party trust game with another player, it was shown that when they administered punishment, the dorsal striatum , an area of the brain associated with the processing of rewards as a result of goal-directed actions, was activated. With respect to the distribution norms violations dictator games , it has been shown that second-party punishments are consistently higher than third-party punishments for dictators that choose to share less than half of their endowment. In a variation of the TP-DG, 8-year-olds based their punishment on the outcome of the unfair result and did not consider the intention of the actor in both second-party and third-party punishment decisions. Subjects participated in a TP-DG during the scan as either a second party recipient or a third party observer. The observer could then choose to spend from his endowment to punish the defectors who chose to put self-interest ahead of cooperation. The punishments were such that the dictators could still profit from giving less than half in the third-party conditions, but could not profit in the second-party conditions.
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